PowerCLI – script to deploy multiple random VMs

There are probably tons of scripts out there to deploy VMs in a vSphere environment, but I was in the mood for scripting this evening and decided to create my own PowerCLI script to automatically deploy multiple random VMs to my home lab. The point was to create random “content” for something exciting I have been working on 🙂

 

 

[download id=”19″]

 

$i = 1
[int]$NumberToDeploy = 10 # Number of VMs to deploy
[string]$NamingConvention = "homelab-VM-" # Prefix for VM names
[string]$folderLoc = "Discovered virtual machine" # Name of VM folder to deploy into

while ($i -le $NumberToDeploy) {
	$NumCPUs = (Get-Random -Minimum 1 -Maximum 3) #NUM CPU of either 1 or 2.
	$MemoryMB = ("16","32","64") | Get-Random # Get a random VM Memory size from this list (MB)
	$DiskSize = ("256","512","768" ) | Get-Random # Get a random disk size from this list (MB)
	$targetDatastore = Get-Datastore | Where {($_.ExtensionData.Summary.MultipleHostAccess -eq "True") -and ($_.FreeSpaceMB -gt "10240")} | Get-Random
	$targetVMhost = Get-VMHost | Where { $_.ConnectionState -eq "Connected" } | Get-Random # Selects a random host which is in "connected State"
	$targetNetwork = ("VM Network","VM Distributed Portgroup") | Get-Random
	$GuestType = (	"darwinGuest","dosGuest","freebsd64Guest","freebsdGuest","mandrake64Guest",
					"mandrakeGuest","other24xLinux64Guest","other24xLinuxGuest","other26xLinux64Guest",
					"other26xLinuxGuest","otherGuest","otherGuest64","otherLinux64Guest","otherLinuxGuest",
					"rhel5Guest","suse64Guest","suseGuest","ubuntu64Guest","ubuntuGuest",
					"win2000AdvServGuest","win2000ProGuest","win2000ServGuest","win31Guest","win95Guest",
					"win98Guest","winLonghorn64Guest","winLonghornGuest","winNetBusinessGuest",
					"winNetDatacenter64Guest","winNetDatacenterGuest","winNetEnterprise64Guest",
					"winNetEnterpriseGuest","winNetStandard64Guest","winNetStandardGuest","winNetWebGuest",
					"winNTGuest","winVista64Guest","winVistaGuest","winXPPro64Guest",
					"winXPProGuest") | Get-Random
	$VMName = $NamingConvention + $i

	if ((Get-VM $VMName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue).Name -eq $VMName) {
		Write-Host "$VMName already exists, skipping creation of this VM!" -ForegroundColor Yellow
		}
	else {	
		Write-Host "Deploying $VMName to $folderLoc ..." -ForegroundColor Green
		#Create our VM
		New-VM -Name $VMName -ResourcePool $targetVMhost -Datastore $targetDatastore -NumCPU $NumCPUs -MemoryMB $MemoryMB -DiskMB $DiskSize `
		-NetworkName $targetNetwork -Floppy -CD -DiskStorageFormat Thin -GuestID $GuestType -Location $folderLoc | Out-Null
		}
	$i++
}

 

This script will automatically deploy a variable number of Virtual Machines, based on a certain naming convention you specify. It’ll also randomly choose VM settings. Here is what it does:

 

  • Deploy any number of VMs by changing the total number of VMs to deploy (specify in script as $NumberToDeploy)
  • Deploys each VM to a random ESXi host which is in a connected state
  • Deploys each VM to a random shared datastore (i.e. a datastore with multiple hosts connected)
  • Sets a random vCPU count to each VM (specify options in the script as $NumCPUs)
  • Sets a random Memory size for each VM (specify options in the script as $MemoryMB)
  • Create a virtual disk as thin provisioned on each VM with a random disk size (specify disk size options in the script as $DiskSize)
  • Adds each VM to a random VM network (specify VM network options in the script as $targetNetwork)
  • Specifies a random GuestOS type for each VM deployed
  • Creates each VM in a specified VM & Templates folder (specify in script as $folderLoc)

 

All options are already set to defaults in the script as is stands, but don’t forget to change important options unique to your environment like the $folderLoc (folder to deploy VMs into), and the list of VM networks ($targetNetwork). Other items are automatically determined (datastore and host to deploy to for example).

Also note that some of the built-in guestOS types might not be supported on some ESXi hosts. In these cases, the script just skips creating that VM and moves onto the next. You may see a red error message for the failed VM in these cases. For a full list of GuestID types, check out this page.

PowerCLI – creating port groups and specifications to modify port groups

I wanted to quickly create some standard VM port groups across a particular vSwitch for all hosts in my lab / testing environment at work. Since I was using Standard vSwitches and not a dvSwitch, I didn’t feel like using the GUI to create these on every individual ESXi host. In addition to creating the port group on each vSwitch, I also wanted to change the security policy on each for Promiscuous mode to “Accept”. The reason for this being that this port group is going to be used to run virtual nested ESXi hosts, and this is required to allow nested VMs to communicate on the network.

 

So the obvious solution here for me was to create a quick PowerCLI script to create these port groups on all hosts and set the security option for each too. Here is the script:

 

$vSwitch = "vSwitch0"
$portgrpname = "vInception Portgroup"
$AllConnectedHosts = Get-VMHost | Where {$_.ConnectionState -eq "Connected"}

foreach ($esxihost in $AllConnectedHosts) {
	$currentvSwitch = $esxihost | Get-VirtualSwitch | Where {$_.Name -eq $vSwitch}
	New-VirtualPortGroup -Name $portgrpname -VirtualSwitch $currentvSwitch -Confirm:$false
	$currentesxihost = Get-VMHost $esxihost | Get-View
	$netsys = Get-View $currentesxihost.configmanager.networksystem
	$portgroupspec = New-Object VMWare.Vim.HostPortGroupSpec
	$portgroupspec.vswitchname = $vSwitch
	$portgroupspec.Name = $portgrpname
	$portgroupspec.policy = New-object vmware.vim.HostNetworkPolicy
	$portgroupspec.policy.Security = New-object vmware.vim.HostNetworkSecurityPolicy
	$portgroupspec.policy.Security.AllowPromiscuous = $true
	$netsys.UpdatePortGroup($portgrpname,$PortGroupSpec)
	
}

 
Keep in mind that this script will create the port group on “vSwitch0” – change this if your vSwitch that is hosting this port group on each host is named differently. It will obviously rely on this vSwitch existing to work. You can also modify the $portgrpname to your own choice of course.

Lastly, you can easily modify this script to change other Security options for the new port group, as the port group specification has already been created in this script. Just use the $portgroupspec.policy.Security object to add other specifications.

Enjoy!
 

PowerCLI 5.1 – new cmdlets and changes between the beta and final releases

I was wondering what new cmdlets had been added in PowerCLI 5.1 as opposed to PowerCLI version 5.0.1. I also wanted to see if there were any changes between the beta release of vSphere 5.1 and the final release which was made public yesterday. The answer is yes, there are indeed changes between all three versions! Here are the cmdlet counts for each version:

 

[table tablesorter=”1″ file=”http://www.shogan.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/powercli-version-cmdlet-counts.csv “][/table]

 

To see what the differences were, I ran the following on each version of PowerCLI (5.0.1, 5.1 beta, and 5.1 final).

 

First of all to get the number of cmdlets and see if there were any changes at a quick glance, I ran a simple count against the Get-VICommand cmdlet:

(Get-VICommand).Count

Seeing differences between each version, I then decided to get a full list of cmdlets for each version, and then run a diff against these.

Get-VICommand | Export-CSV C:\cmdletsforversionX.csv

 

I then opened each CSV file, grabbed the full list of cmdlets from the “Name” column, and ran these against each other using on online difference checking site. Here are the results:

 

vSphere PowerCLI 5.1 beta had an additional 4 cmdlets over PowerCLI 5.0.1, with 1 having been removed.

 

PowerCLI 5.1 beta changes

Removed New
Get-EsxSoftwareChannel Get-DeployOption
Get-EsxSoftwareDepot
Remove-EsxImageProfile
Set-DeployOption

 

vSphere PowerCLI 5.1 (final/public release) had an additional 47 cmdlets over PowerCLI 5.1 beta, with none having been removed. These mostly seem to be related to the vCloud Suite as far as I can tell.

 PowerCLI 5.1 beta to 5.1 public release changes

[table tablesorter=”1″ file=”http://www.shogan.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/powercli-5-1-public-cmdlet-additions.csv”][/table]

 

It is worth noting that in each case I had a full installation of PowerCLI – i.e. had selected to install PowerCLI normal and Cloud cmdlets during installation.

So it looks like I’ll need to spend some time getting acquainted with the new cmdlets. If you are curious as to what each does, don’t forget the built in help – using “Get-Help Cmdletname” and the use of the -examples switch.

 

Using Project “Onyx” to find the equivalent PowerCLI script to achieve tasks done in the vSphere Client

 

A few days ago someone dropped a comment on one of my blog posts asking how they could Enter an ESXi host into maintenance without migrating VMs off of it automatically using PowerCLI. The -Evacuate switch for the cmdlet in question (Set-VMHost) didn’t see to be working when assigning the value of $false and hence they were unable to put hosts into maintenance mode without evacuating VMs first with PowerCLI.

Perhaps the cmdlet was being used incorrectly, or there is a better way of doing this, but that is not the point of this post. The point of this post is to show you the power and usefulness of Project “Onyx”. Project “Onyx” is an application released (quite some time ago!) by VMware that is essentially a “script recorder”. It connects to your vCenter instance, and in turn, you connect to it as a proxy using your vSphere client. Communications are not secured when doing this, so everything you do in your vSphere client is able to be recorded. You essentially end up with a “recording” of API calls that can be utilised in PowerCLI. Where this comes in handy is where you are not able to achieve something with PowerCLI’s already huge library of cmdlets. In this case the -evacuate switch of Set-VMHost was not working the way I expected it to work, and so to avoid wasting time trying to figure out what I needed to do, I just fired up Project Onyx, connected to it via the vSphere Client, then told an ESXi host to enter maintenance mode (unticking the migrate powered off / suspended VMs option of course) whilst the Project Onyx application was set to “record” mode.

The console then collected the necessary script, and I just modified it as necessary to create a small script that did the exact same task, but this time in PowerCLI.

 

To use Project “Onyx” simply download it from this page, then run the executable once you have extracted the .zip file. Tell Onyx to connect to your vCenter Server, then use your vSphere Client to connect to the machine that Onyx is running on (IP). Make sure you specify the correct listening port in the vSphere Client connection too – it will be the port listed in the Window Title bar of the actual Project “Onyx” application when it is running. Click the record button in the Application and then perform the required tasks using the vSphere Client.

 

Project Onyx application window with some recorded script. Note the port 1545 in the Window Title Bar.

 

Connecting to Onyx as a proxy

 

 

Finding Vendor specific VIBs on ESXi hosts with PowerCLI

 

Example showing VIBs loaded on a host with a search of the vendor name "VMware"

 

The other day I was trying to find a list of Custom VIBs (VMware Installation Bundles) that were installed on an ESXi host. The reason was that I just wanted to verify that the VIB had actually installed correctly or not. I threw the query out on Twitter and of course @alanrenouf had a solution in next to no time.

So Alan’s solution is to use the Get-EsxCli cmdlet and specify the host name using the VMHost parameter. After that, he simply uses the code property “software” to gain access to the list of VIBs on the host. E.g.

$ESXCLI = Get-EsxCli -VMHost esxi-01.noobs.local
$ESXCLI.software.vib.list()

I have used esxcli on its own before but didn’t realise that PowerCLI had this cmdlet built in to interface with hosts in the same way that esxcli would. This is a great solution and means you can fetch so much more in this regard.

To filter things down a bit more and find the exact match for the Dell OMSA VIB I was looking out for, I used a where clause looking for a match for “dell” on the Vendor property:

$ESXCLI.software.vib.list() | Select AcceptanceLevel,ID,InstallDate,Name,ReleaseDate,Status,Vendor,Version | Where {$_.Vendor -match "dell"}

Thanks again to Alan Renouf for pointing out the use of Get-EsxCli and for providing an example!

 

How to use PoSH or PowerCLI to SSH into network devices – wodSSH [Part 2]

 

In [part 1] of this series of posts, I explored SharpSSH, and how to use this to SSH into network devices via PowerShell or PowerCLI. I found this extremely useful, and managed to automate a process of retrieving some SHA1 SSL fingerprints from a few clusters of ESX hosts in the process. I did however find that loading the dll and functions necessary to get this bit of automation done was a little tedious. I had heard about wodSSH via the get-scripting podcast and decided I would need to take a look at this.

 

If you are planning on using wodSSH, you should start by downloading it here. Note that you should definitely buy a license if you are going to be using this for your job or day to day automation – the license is not to expensive if you consider the kinds of automation you could achieve with this! For this blog post I am just using the trial version in my lab environment at home to try out – the trial pops up a “nag screen” every now and then to indicate you are unlicensed. Once downloaded, install wodSSH and the libraries will now be available for use on your machine.

 

Download the script below, or take a look at it in the Syntax Highlighted area below – this is an example of how I was able to SSH into a cluster of ESXi hosts and run a remote command via SSH through PowerCLI. In this example, a table is returned with Host names, along with their SHA1 fingerprint information. It is possible to retrieve this info (as of ESXi 5 I believe) in PowerCLI, but for this example I just wanted to demonstrate the use of SSH and PowerShell / PowerCLI.

 

[download id=”14″]

 

$login = "root"
$password = "yourrootpassword" 

$Report = @()
$VMHosts = Get-VMHost | Where {$_.ConnectionState -eq "Connected"} | Sort Name

foreach ($vmhost in $VMHosts) {
	$hostname = $vmhost
	$ssh = New-Object -ComObject "weOnlyDo.wodSSHCom.1"
	$ssh.Hostname = $hostname
	$ssh.Login = $login
	$ssh.Password = $password
	$ssh.Blocking = 1
	$ssh.Protocol = 4
	$ssh.Timeout = 25
	$ssh.Connect($hostname)
	$ssh.WaitFor("regex:[$%#>] $")
	$cmdresult = $ssh.Execute("openssl x509 -sha1 -in /etc/vmware/ssl/rui.crt -noout -fingerprint`r`n","regex:[~#]")
	$ssh.Disconnect()
	$temp = $cmdresult | select-string -pattern "SHA1 Fingerprint="
	Write-Host $cmdresult -ForegroundColor Green
	$row = New-Object -TypeName PSObject -Property @{
		SHA1 = $cmdresult
		HostName = $vmhost
	}
	$Report += $row
}
$Report

 

You will notice that on line 09, we load the wodSSH library using the New-Object cmdlet. After this we continue to setup some properties for our $ssh connection object. A regex check is used to determine when are connected to a host and have an SSH shell prompt ($ssh.WaitFor(“regex:[$%>;] $”).  We then use $cmdresult to capture the result of running an SSH command via our connection to our current ESXi host. To finish capturing the output of the command on our remote host, we use a regex check again (“regex:[~#]”). You’ll notice that the actual command is also on this line, i.e. line 18 (openssl). After the result is captured, we disconnect our SSH session, then proceed to build our small report array. At the end of the script, we output the $Report array to the screen.

 

Results of the above script in PowerCLI

 

As far as I can see, the wodSSH library can open up a whole new world of automation for you in the data centre. Think of the possibilities – you could automate just about everything, from switches, routers, Linux/Unix hosts / ESXi Hosts to iLO / DRAC and other management cards. Essentially, anything that accepts commands via SSH! If you have any automation stories using wodSSH, or just PowerShell or PowerCLI in general, I would love to hear about them – so feel free to drop a comment or two on this post.