A while ago I posted my home storage server build which at the time was setup to run FreeNAS. Things have moved on in that space and FreeNAS has been replaced with TrueNAS Core. I thought I would post my FreeNAS to TrueNAS upgrade experience.
First off the recommendation is to ensure you’re on the latest FreeNAS version (the last official release, which was FreeNAS 11.3-U5). I had already been running this version for a while so I was set there.
FreeNAS to TrueNAS Upgrade Process
I started off by creating a full, manual backup of all my storage pools to an external disk. I verified a bunch of files in various locations on the backup disk to be extra sure they looked good.
Next was to switch release trains to TrueNAS-12.0-STABLE. At the time of posting, the current release is TrueNAS-12.0-U8.
Clicking Download Updates started the download and upgrade process. Before starting you’re offered the chance to download your configuration backup. Definitely do this. It contains all your configuration as well as an optional password secret seed. This is important if you need to re-install the OS or change to a new boot device.
Once the upgrade completes the UI should reconnect after reboot, showing off the shiny new dashboard.
Updating ZFS Feature Flags
After verifying I could still access my SMB shares and that my NFS provisioner for my Kubernetes cluster was still working as expected I decided to lock in TrueNAS 12.0 by updating my ZFS pool feature flags across all zpools.
In a shell, I ran zpool status to take a look. Each pool is listed and should shows that some new features are not yet enabled. By leaving them as is, you retain the ability to roll back to your old FreeNAS version. Updating them locks you into the ZFS version that they were introduced with.
Updating to use the latest feature flags is something you should personally decide on. Do you need the newer feature flags?
According to this post, TrueNAS 12.0supports the Feature Flags listed below. (Bold are read-only backwards compatible, and italicized flags are very easy to return to the enabled state):
Sequential Rebuilds [device_rebuild]
Updating ZFS feature flags is then as simple as running the zpool upgrade command.
E.g. sudo zpool upgrade my-pool
The last step is to upgrade any jails you might be running. Use the iocage upgrade command to get going with.
There is something magical about building your own infrastructure from scratch. And when I say scratch, I mean using bare metal. This is a run through of my multipurpose FreeNAS server build process.
After scratching the itch recently with my Raspberry Pi Kubernetes Cluster, I got a hankering to do it again, and this build was soon in the works.
Part of my motivation came from my desire to reduce our reliance on cloud technology at home. Don’t get me wrong, I am an advocate for using the cloud where it makes sense. My day job revolves around designing and managing various clients’ cloud infrastructure.
At home, this was more about taking control of our own data.
I’ll skip to the juicy specifications part if you would like to know what hardware I used right away.
These are the final specifications I decided on. Scroll down to see the details about each area.
I also made an initial mistake here in my build buying a Gigabyte B450M DS3H motherboard. The product specs seem to indicate that it supports ECC, and so did a review I found on Anandtech. In reality the Gigabyte board does not support the ECC feature. Rather it ‘supports’ ECC memory by allowing the system to boot with ECC RAM installed, but you don’t get the actual error checking and correction!
I figured this out after booting it up with Fedora Rawhide as well as a couple of uBuntu Server distributions and running the edac-utils package. In all cases edac-utils failed to find ECC support / or any memory controller.
The Asus board I settled on supports ECC and edac-utils confirmed this.
The motherboard also has an excellent EFI BIOS. I found it easy to get to the ECC and Virtualization settings.
I used 4 x Western Digital 3TB Red hard drives for the RAIDZ1 main storage pool.
The SSD storage pool consists of 2 x Crucial MX500 250GB SSD SATA drives in a mirror configuration. This configuration is for running Virtual Machines and the NFS storage for my Kubernetes cluster.
The crossing out of APUs also meant I would need a discrete graphic card for console / direct access, and to install the OS initially. I settled on a cheap PCI Express Graphics card off Ebay for this.
Having chosen a beefy six core Ryzen 2600 CPU, I decided I didn’t need to get a fancy graphics card for live media encoding. (Plex does much better with this). If media encoding speed and efficiency is important to you, then consider something like an nVIDIA or AMD card.
For me, the six core CPU does a fine job at encoding media for home and remote streaming over Plex.
I wanted to use this system to server file storage for my home PCs and equipment. Besides this, I also wanted to export and share storage to my Raspberry Pi Kubernetes cluster, which runs on it’s own, dedicated network.
The simple solution for me here was multihoming the server onto the two networks. So I would need two network interface cards, with at least 1Gbit/s capability.
The motherboard already has an Intel NIC onboard, so I added two more ports with an Intel Pro Dual Port Gigabit PCI Express x4 card.
I’ll detail the highlights of my configuration for each service the multipurpose FreeNAS Server build hosts.
Main System Setup
The boot device is the 120GB M.2 nVME SSD. I installed FreeNAS 11.3 using a bootable USB drive.
I created two Storage Pools. Both are encrypted. Besides the obvious protection encryption provides, this also makes it easier to recycle drives later on if I need to.
Storage Pool 1
4 x Western Digital Red 3TB drives, configured with RAIDZ1. (1 disk’s worth of storage is effectively lost for parity, giving roughly 8-9 TB of usable space).
Deduplication turned off
Storage Pool 2
2 x Crucial MX500 250GB SSD drives, configured in a Mirror (1 disk mirrors the other, providing a backup if one fails).
Deduplication turned off
The network is set to use the onboard NIC to connect to my main home LAN. One of the ports on the Intel dual port NIC connects to my Raspberry Pi Kubernetes Cluster network and assigned a static IP address on that network.
My home network’s storage shares are simple Windows SMB Shares.
I created a dedicated user in FreeNAS which I configured in the SMB share configuration ACLs to give access.
Windows machines then simply mount the network location / path as mapped drives.
I also enabled Shadow Copies. FreeNAS supports this to enable Windows to use Shadow Copies.
I setup a dedicated uBuntu Server 18.04 LTS Virtual Machine using FreeNAS’ built-in VM support (bhyve). Before doing this, I enabled virtualization support in the motherboard BIOS settings. (SVM Mode = Enabled).
I used the standard installation method for Pi-Hole. I made sure the VM was using a static IP address and was bridged to my home network. Then I reconfigured my home DHCP server to dish out the Pi-hole’s IP address as the primary DNS server to all clients.
For the DNS upstream servers that Pi-hole uses, I chose to use the Quad9 (filtered, DNSSEC) ones, and enabled DNSSEC.
NextCloud has a readily available plugin for FreeNAS. However, out of the box you get no SSL. You’ll need to setup your networking at home to allow remote access. Additionally, you’ll need to get an SSL certificate. I used Let’s Encrypt.
Plex was a simple setup. Simply install the Plex FreeNAS plugin from the main Plugins page and follow the wizard. It will install and configure a jail to run Plex.
To mount your media, you need to stop the Plex jail and edit it to add your media location on your storage. Here is an example of my mount point. It basically mounts the media directory I use to keep all my media into the Plex Jail’s filesystem.
NFS Storage for Kubernetes
Lastly, I setup an NFS share / export for my Raspberry Pi Kubernetes Cluster to use for Persistent Volumes to attach to pods.
The key points here were that I allowed the two network ranges I wanted to have access to this storage from. (10.0.0.0/8 is my Kubernetes cluster network). I also configured a Mapall user of ‘root’, which allows the storage to be writeable when mounted by pods/containers in Kubernetes. (Or any other clients that mount this storage).
I was happy with this level of access for this particular NFS storage share from these two networks.
I modified the deployment manifest to point it to my FreeNAS machine’s IP address and NFS share path.
With that done, pods can now request persistent storage with a Persistent Volume Claim (PVC). The NFS client provisioner will create a directory for the pod (named after the pod itself) on the NFS mount and mount that to your pod.
So far the multipurpose FreeNAS server build has been very stable. It has been happily serving our home media streaming, storage, and shared storage needs.
It’s also providing persistent storage for my Kubernetes lab environment which is great, as I prefer not to use the not-so-durable microSD cards on the Raspberry Pi’s themselves for storage.
The disk configuration size seems fine for our needs. At the moment we’re only using ~20% of the total storage, so there is plenty of room to grow.
I’m also happy with the ability to run custom VMs or Jails for additional services, though I might need to add another 16GB of ECC RAM in the future to support more as ZFS does well with plenty of memory.
The FreeNAS Nextcloud plugin installation works great with automatic configuration thanks to a recent pull request. But, you don’t get SSL enabled by default. This is critical, especially for a system exposed to the internet.
In this post you’ll see how to:
Install the Nextcloud plugin in a FreeNAS BSD jail
Add an extra NAT port for SSL to the jail
Configure NGINX inside the jail by adding a customised configuration with SSL enabled
Apply a free SSL certificate using Lets Encrypt and DNS-01 challenge validation
Look at some options for setting up home networking for public access
Start off by Installing the Nextcloud Plugin in a jail. Choose NAT for networking mode. It defaults to port 8282:80 (http).
Stop the jail once it’s running and edit it. Add another NAT rule to point 8443 to 443 for SSL.
The reason for selecting port 8443 for Nextcloud is because the FreeNAS web UI listens on port 443 for SSL too.
An alternative could be to use DHCP instead of NAT for the jail. I chose NAT for my setup as I prefer using one internal IP address for everything I run on the FreeNAS server.
Shell into the Nextcloud jail, and rename the default nginx configuration.
NGINX will load all .conf files in this directory. Hence the reason you’ll create a new configuration for your SSL setup here.
Populate it with the contents of the gist below, but replace server_name, ssl_certificate, and ssl_certificate_key with your own hostname.
Generate a free SSL certificate with Lets Encrypt
To configure the Nextcloud plugin on FreeNAS with SSL you don’t need to break the bank on SSL certificate costs from traditional CAs. Lets Encrypt it free, but you’ll need to renew your certificate every three months.
DNS-01 challenge certificate generation for Lets Encrypt is a great way to get SSL certificates without a public web server.
It entails creating a TXT/SPF record on the domain you own, with a value set to a code that certbot gives you during the certbot request process.
Install certbot if you don’t already have it installed. On a debian based system:
sudo apt-get install certbot
Request a certificate for your desired hostname using certbot with dns as the preferred challenge.
sudo certbot -d yournextcloud.example.net --manual --preferred-challenges dns certonly
Follow the prompts until you receive a code to setup your own TXT record with. Go to your DNS provider control panel and create it with the code you’re given as the value.
After creating the record, finish the certificate request. Lets Encrypt will confirm the DNS TXT record and issue you a certificate. You’ll get a chain file called fullchain.pem, along with a private key file called privkey.pem.
Upload the SSL certificate files to Nextcloud
Upload both to your Nextcloud Jail. Use SCP to copy them up, renaming them as follows:
I have been playing with the newer versions of FreeNAS for shared storage on my home VMware vSphere lab recently (after having last used it on version 7.x). I added a spare OCZ Vertex Plus 120GB SSD to my mini-ITX based FreeNAS box and was wondering how TRIM would be handled, if at all with FreeNAS.
To check to see if your SSD supports TRIM under FreeNAS, open up a Shell session to your FreeNAS box – i.e. PuTTy, or via the Web GUI. Then issue the following command, specifying your SSD drive where /dev/ada0 is used as an example below. Note that we are using the CAM control program that comes with FreeBSD. Please exercise caution with this command as it has the potential to cause damage if not used correctly!
camcontrol identify /dev/ada0
If you need to check disk/device names to figure out which one is your SSD, you could use the GUI. Go to Storage -> View Disks, then check the name column for the device names of each disk. Use /dev/diskname in the command above. After running the command above, you’ll get a list of disk information back, just check the “data set management (TRIM)” row to see if TRIM support is enabled or not.
I have not yet worked out a way to see if TRIM is actually being actively used yet though – so if anyone has any suggestions or ideas as to how to check that it is actually in use, please let me know!